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City of Shadows (1991-1994)

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Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 1), St. Petersburg, 1991-1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 1), St. Petersburg, 1991-1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 15
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 1) is Titarenko’s most iconic image, and served as the cover image for his first major monograph, The City is a Novel (Damiani, 2015). With its powerful diagonal composition and extraordinary tonal range, this photograph succeeds in expressing in a single frame Titarenko’s metaphor of people as “shadows” in 20th-century Russia. Furthermore, the image not only captures the singular and harrowing experience of life in St. Petersburg in the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the USSR, but also evokes the trauma wrought by revolutions, war and the other trials that people have faced throughout the twentieth century. This image is charged with both this angst and with deep empathy. By transcending time, it has become symbolic of human suffering in different places and periods throughout history.

Crowd on Sredniy Prospect (Crowd 3), Saint Petersburg, 1992

Crowd on Sredniy Prospect (Crowd 3), Saint Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


In Crowd 3, Titarenko captures a crowd of people on one of the major avenues on Vasilevsky Island in St. Petersburg, Sredniy Prospect. Here, the gradation in Titarenko’s tones renders the crowd uniquely haunting and ambiguous, seemingly moving both toward and away from the lens simultaneously, darkening almost to black in the farthest corner and set off dramatically against the near-white of the city street. Unlike in his other “Crowd” images, almost no human features are visible — no hands on a subway railing, no individual heads. Faint traces of a tram or a car are just barely visible behind the crowd, their presence all but obscured by the length of Titarenko’s exposure. The result is a heightened sense of anxiety, in which humanity seems not just to blur together but even to disappear.

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 2), St. Petersburg, 1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 2), St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


“A crowd moves herblike up one side of a set of steps…The time exposure turns the people to dismembered wraiths floating past in an almost amorphous mass. Their ghostliness highlights the anonymity and regimentation of city life and evokes the dead…The lighter tones of the building façades in the background provide a visual and emotional counterpoint…Perhaps this is an artist’s live variation on Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase. Focusing on steps recalls the Odessa Steps scene from Sergey Eisenstein’s The Battleship Potemkin. Using traditional photographic methods, Titarenko mines such metaphorical possibilities from the city’s physical and psychological interstices."

Ferdinand Protzman, Landscape: Photographs of Time and Place

Entrance, Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Heads), St. Petersburg, 1991-1992

Entrance, Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Heads), St. Petersburg, 1991-1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


Heads is distinctive among Titarenko’s “Crowd” images in that the focus is a mass of people not on the steps outside Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station, with the city storefronts as a backdrop, but pushing into its entrance, framed at a slight angle that emphasizes the overwhelming size and movement of the rushing crowd. The square format of Titarenko’s medium-format Hasselblad camera further intensifies the feeling of tumult and claustrophobia, as does Titarenko’s distinctive long exposure technique, which blur the individual commuters into a dark cloud in which individual heads are just barely distinguishable. This dark mass of individuals is set off by the gleaming, almost garish light of the station entrance, a sharp contrast that also characterizes Titarenko’s photograph Crowd 3, where the dark crowd is set against a sunlit street.

Titarenko writes of this station in his essay “City of Shadows”: “The train is deep underground—more than two hundred feet—because the soil is so unstable, and access to the platforms is by way of a seemingly interminable escalator. When the escalator broke down, as often happened, entry to the station was restricted to avoid a dangerous crush. At rush hour a crowd of several thousand people would accumulate outside and in waves this human tide climbed up the stairs leading to the entrance of the impressive building on high ground, as was generally the case for most metro stations in Leningrad. Barricaded behind its glass doors, a few policemen were trying desperately to contain the masses of people. In vain, because the crowds were determined to enter at all costs, even if it meant losing a button or a shoe. People pushed, yelled, threw punches. Handicapped people were trampled. It was like a scene from hell...What guided me in constructing this ensemble [City of Shadows] was once again a musical piece, Shostakovich’s Cello Concerto no. 2. As I watched the ghastly scene at the metro entrance, the opening melody from the first movement overwhelmed my hesitations and freed me from doubt, from self-interrogation, and from a childlike fear, if not to say a sense of shame. It allowed me to confront the furious, menacing crowd.”

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant Crowd 2), St. Petersburg, 1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant Crowd 2), St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant Crowd 2) was Titarenko’s instinctive response to an atmosphere of deterioration and despair unfolding in 1990s Saint Petersburg, the years immediately after the fall of the Soviet Union. Through the method of long exposure, Titarenko transformed the swarm of Russian people pushing their way through a metro station, into a ghost-like haze. Reflecting a decade later, Titarenko wrote that “all these people conditioned by propagandistic models of representation, a palpable ensemble of smiling faces, were becoming wandering shadows.”

Variant Crowd 2 is a variation of Titarenko’s magnum opus, Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station. In his crowd photographs, Titarenko unleashed the expressive potentials of long-exposure, demonstrating his mastery of the artistic method. Through darkroom toning and bleaching, he highlights specific elements in the scene. Particularly stirring are the pair of shoes — a frozen calm amid a procession of shadows. Titarenko invented these technique to truthfully reveals feelings of anxiety in Saint Petersburg at the time. Evocative as both an artistic achievement and a historical document, artworks from the Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station series can be found in such collections at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; MAST, Bologna; and the Chrysler Museum, Norfolk.

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant 2 Crowd 2), Saint Petersburg, 1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant 2 Crowd 2), Saint Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
8 3/8 x 8 3/8 in. (21.3 x 21.3 cm)
Edition of 5

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant 3 Crowd 2), Saint Petersburg, 1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant 3 Crowd 2), Saint Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
8 1/8 x 8 1/8 in. (20.6 x 20.6 cm)
Edition of 5

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant 4 Crowd 2), Saint Petersburg, 1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Variant 4 Crowd 2), Saint Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
8 3/8 x 8 3/8 in. (21.3 x 21.3 cm)
Edition of 5

Boy, St. Petersburg, 1993

Boy, St. Petersburg, 1993
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


A young boy leans against a dilapidated wall on a St. Petersburg street. Behind the cloud of grays created by a passer-by, the boy stands still, looking directly into Titarenko’s lens, his pale face framed precisely at the center of the image. Surrounding him are subtle reminders of the state of the city, which was enduring such economic hardship that its inhabitants referred to the period as the “second blockade” — a crumbling façade, a peeling poster, a bag of discarded teacups to be sold on the street. The boy looks at us as if looking into the future, a future that was so perilous and uncertain in post-Soviet Russia — as if asking, what will happen in this new Russia, and what will happen to him?

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 4), St. Petersburg, 1992

Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station (Crowd 4), St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)


Titarenko captures a crowd of people entering one of the biggest subway stations in St. Petersburg, and the only station on Vasilyevsky Island, which is separated from the city center by the Neva River. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a severe gasoline shortage led to a cessation of car travel, and this subway station became the only means of transportation for people living on Vasilevsky Island. As a result, the station was flooded with thousands of passengers every day. The masses of moving figures at this station moved Titarenko deeply, and motivated him to use long exposure to express the reality of life in post-Soviet St. Petersburg; Titarenko has been credited with being one of the first contemporary photographers to apply this technique to street photography.

Crowd going to Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station, 1993

Crowd going to Vasileostrovskaya Metro Station, 1993
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

Three Pensioners Selling Contraband Cigarettes, St. Petersburg, 1992

Three Pensioners Selling Contraband Cigarettes, St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)
16 x 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 cm)

Store 59, St. Petersburg, 1994

Store 59, St. Petersburg, 1994
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 10
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

Rain on Nevsky Prospect, St. Petersburg, 1994

Rain on Nevsky Prospect, St. Petersburg, 1994
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm)
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)


Nevsky Prospect is the main avenue in St. Petersburg. Dostoyevsky, one of Titarenko’s major literary influences, set many scenes on Nevsky Prospect in his novels and stories, including Crime and Punishment and The Double. In this image, a long exposure technique and the dynamic range of gray tones produced during the printing process create a painterly, impressionistic effect. The figures are as fluid as the rain; as umbrellas jostle for space above pedestrians’ heads, leaving faint shadows on the film, a woman’s shoe dodges a puddle, and gentle, almost playful streaks of light signify the rush of movement through the frame. The unusually low vantage point not only makes us feel that we, too, are in the midst of this crowd, but also accentuates the watery reflections of the passers-by.

 

Man at the Tram Stop, Saint Petersburg, 1992

Man at the Tram Stop, Saint Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 10
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)
 

Grandmother with Grandchild, St. Petersburg, 1992

Grandmother with Grandchild, St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 10 
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

Black Market, St. Petersburg, 1992

Black Market, St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 10
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

Trolley, St. Petersburg, 1992

Trolley, St. Petersburg, 1992
Unique vintage gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
7 x 7 in. (17.8 x 17.8 cm), edition of 5
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm), edition of 10

Kuptchino Railway Station, St. Petersburg, 1993

Kuptchino Railway Station, St. Petersburg, 1993
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 10
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

Boarding a Local Train, Kuptchino Railway Station, St. Petersburg, 1993

Boarding a Local Train, Kuptchino Railway Station, St. Petersburg, 1993
Unique toned gelatin silver print, handmade in the darkroom by the artist
Signed, titled, dated, and editioned by the artist on verso
Edition of 5
12 x 12 in. (30.5 x 30.5 cm)

"The idea of City of Shadows emerged quite unexpectedly and quite naturally during the collapse [of the Soviet Union] in the fall of 1991. I mean that the concept itself stemmed from my impressions nourished by the everyday reality. At that period, I continued to work on my series Nomenklatura of Signs. Suddenly, at some point I realized that I was struggling with emptiness and that my creative impulses – initially absolutely sincere – were running the risk of contemplating upon ideas no longer valid. This happened because the Soviet people, all these human beings deprived of their individuality and turned into 'signs' by a criminal regime, began transforming from smiling and happy-looking 'signs' into wandering shadows, even though rejecting the role of a 'sign' could result in the loss of life. The year of 1992 was approaching…

"The northern city of St. Petersburg is known for its summer 'white nights' and its short, dark winter days lasting for just a few hours. In the winter of 1991-1992, one cold and gloomy day, I strolled sadly down a street which used to be packed with people, which used to be full of joyful vibrancy and dynamism. It was poorly lit; evening was settling in. There was not a single car visible. The depressing and strange quietness was interrupted by the sounds of banging grocery store and bakery doors, stores in which the shelves were absolutely empty. I saw people on the verge of insanity, in confusion: unattractively dressed men and women with eyes full of sorrow and desperation, tottering on their routine dreary routes with their last ounce of strength, in search of some food which could prolong their lives and the lives of their families. They looked like shadows, undernourished and worn out. Nothing like that had occurred since World War II, when the Nazis blockaded the city. My impressions as well as my emotional state were enormously powerful and long lasting. I felt an intense desire to articulate these sufferings and grieving, to visualize them through my photographs, to awaken empathy and love for my native city’s inhabitants, people who have been constantly victimized and ruined during the course of the 20th century.

"More than anything, I wanted to convey my 'people-shadows' metaphor as accurately as possible. This metaphor became the core of both my new vision and new series. I placed my Hasselblad camera near the entrance to the Vasilievostrovskaia subway station, where the shopping district was located. The events occurring there were imposed on my already mentioned impressions, as were sensations stirred by Shostakovich’s music, and his 13th Symphony in particular, with its movement 'At the Store.' A crowd of people flowing near the subway station formed a sort of human sea, providing me with a feeling of non-reality, a phantasmagoria; these people were like shadows from the underworld, a world visited by Aeneas, Virgil’s character. It was a place where time had come to a standstill. This perception of time stopped convinced me that it could also be stopped by means of a camera shutter. I already knew how to achieve this effect, as in my childhood I often took pictures by trying the long exposure process in the dusk and evening, and later, when attending the university at the end of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s, I studied this technique of 19th-century French photography.

"I began taking pictures every day. When several good pictures were accumulated, I started grouping them with the intention of following a certain narrative line. This process helps me to make decisions regarding further subjects to be captured...There is the story behind City of Shadows. As a rule, Shostakovich’s 2nd Cello Concerto and his 13th Symphony accompany the exhibit of this series."

— Alexey Titarenko

Biography

Click here to read Titarenko’s essay City of Shadows, published in The City is a Novel (Damiani, 2015), in which he describes his coming-of-age as an artist, the social and political context of his work, and some of his greatest influences, in particular Dostoyevsky and Shostakovich.

Born in 1962 in Leningrad, present-day St. Petersburg, Titarenko began taking photographs at a young age and studied in the Department of Cinematic and Photographic Art at Leningrad’s Institute of Culture. He had his first professional success with his series Nomenklatura of Signs (1986-1991), a biting critique of the Soviet bureaucracy that drew on the aesthetics of Kazimir Malevich, Aleksandr Rodchenko, and other artists of the early 20th-century Russian avant-garde. Working in secret, Titarenko conceived the series as a way to translate the visual reality of Soviet life into a language that expressed its absurdity, and to expose the Communist regime as an oppressive system that converted citizens into mere signs. In 1989, Nomenklatura of Signs was included in Photostroyka, a major show of new Soviet photography that toured the United States.

Titarenko rose to international prominence in the early 1990s for City of Shadows, a series of photographs of his native city made in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union and inspired by the music of Dmitri Shostakovich and the novels of Fyodor Dostoevsky. Titarenko’s application of long exposures, intentional camera movement, and expert printmaking techniques to street photography produced a powerful meditation on an urban landscape still suffused with a history of suffering. In the decade that followed, his pursuit of the city of his youth led him as far afield as Venice — St. Petersburg has been called "the Venice of the North" due to its canals and to the influence of the European architects who helped build the city — and Havana, whose streets and buildings remain frozen in the Soviet era.

For the past eight years, Titarenko has turned his lens toward a very different city: New York. In this work, Titarenko brings his longstanding concerns with time and history to bear on a relatively young city known for its relentless, headlong pace. Titarenko’s distinctive long exposures and selective toning highlight the way that architecture not only gives form to the lives of a city’s inhabitants, but also stands as an embodiment of its history. Even in New York, time stands still, if just for a moment: in the defunct fire alarm boxes still posed on busy street corners; in turn-of-the-century façades adorned with the multivalent, overlapping signage of the modern era; and in buildings like the Domino Sugar Factory, a powerful example of the city’s rich past meeting its implacable present.

In 2015, Titarenko’s first monograph, The City is a Novel, was published by Damiani and selected by The Wall Street Journal as one of the best photobooks of the year. For Titarenko, the city not only shapes and influences each individual’s mindset and point of view; it is also a creative force, the stage for narratives in which each of us becomes his or her own distinct character. As he writes in the book, “Universal emotions perpetuated during the last century…constitute the main themes of my photographs, to the extent of transforming the most documentary among them into elements of a novel — not reportage, but a novel, whose central theme is the human soul.”

Titarenko creates each print by hand in his darkroom, producing a rich, subtle range of tones that renders each piece unique. Such masterful printing is particularly suited to Titarenko’s longtime interest in water and its relationship to the city, bringing out the texture and reflective quality of snow, rain, clouds, and urban harbors and waterways, and infusing each image with moisture and light.

Titarenko’s photographs have been shown in over thirty solo exhibitions and over forty group exhibitions around the world. His work can be found in the collections of the Baltimore Museum of Art; the Columbus Museum of Art; the Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, VA; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; the Middlebury College Museum of Art, Middlebury, VT; the Museum of Fine Arts, Denver; the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; the Museum of the City of New York; the Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego; the Santa Barbara Museum of Art; the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles; the Philadelphia Museum of Art; the George Eastman House, Rochester; the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven; the Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ; the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; the European House of Photography, Paris; the Musée Réattu, Arles; the Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne; the Centre National de l'Audiovisuel, Dudelange, Luxemburg; the Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow; and the State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, among other museums.

Alexey Titarenko lives and works in New York City. His second major publication, Nomenklatura of Signs, was published by Damiani in 2020 and presents the titular body of work in its entirety for the first time.

Selected Exhibitions

2020
Collecting New York's Stories, the Museum of the City of New York, NY, USA

2018
Zerkalo: Forever After, The State Museum and Exhibition Center ROSPHOTO, St. Petersburg, Russia
Pendulum: Merci e Persone in Movimento, The MAST foundation, Bologna, Italy

2017
Alexey Titarenko: The City is a Novel, Damiani Gallery, Bologna, Italy
Alexey Titarenko: The City is a Novel, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2015
Alexey Titarenko: Photographs from St. Petersburg (1991-1999), Galerie C, Neufchâtel, Switzerland
Alexey Titarenko: St. Petersburg in Four Movements, Manège Royal, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris, France
Le parfums dans tous les sens, Jardins du Palais Royal, Paris, France
Alexey Titarenko: New York, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2012
Contemporary Russian Photography: Perestroika Liberalization and Experimentation, Fotofest, Houston, TX
New York: Stieglitz to Titarenko, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2011
A Revolutionary Project: Cuba from Walker Evans to Now, the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA
Alexey Titarenko: Photographs 1986-2010, Lodz International Fotofest. Atlas Sztuki Gallery, Lodz, Poland
Soviet Photography in the 1980s from the Norton and Nancy Dodge Collection, Zimmerli Art Museum, New Brunswick, NJ

2010
Alexey Titarenko: Petersburg in Black & White, Late Revelations, Moscow International Photobiennale, Pobeda Gallery, Moscow, Russia
Alexey Titarenko: St. Petersburg in Four Movements, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2008
Temps perdus, curated by Gabriel Bauret, Thessaloniki Photo Biennale, Greece
Alexey Titarenko: Venice, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2007
Vital signs: Place, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY
DE L’EUROPE. Photographies, essais, histoires", Centre National Audiovisuel de Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Alexey Titarenko: Havana, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2006
Northern Lights, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2004
St. Petersburg: City of Water and City of Shadows, FotoFest, Houston, TX
Alexey Titarenko: Time Standing Still, Nailya Alexander Gallery, New York, NY

2002
Alexey Titarenko: Four Movements of St. Petersburg, Reattu Museum, Arles International Photography Festival, Arles, France
Time Regained: Fragments from St. Petersburg series, Manezh Central Exhibition Hall, Moscow, Russia

2000
Alexey Titarenko, Retrospective Exhibition, Galerie Municipale du Chateau d’eau, Festival Garonne, Toulouse, France
Le Temps Inachevé, Nei Liicht Gallery, Dudelange, Luxemburg
Nomenklatura of Signs (audiovisual projection), Keep the light on..., Centre National de l'Audiovisuel, Clerveaux Castle, Luxemburg
Magician of St. Petersburg, Garry Edwards Gallery, Washington, DC, USA
Biarritz Terre d'Images, Biarritz, France

1999
Ville des Ombres: Alexey Titarenko, photographies, Musée de Nice, Galeries des Ponchettes, Nice, France

1995
New Soviet Photography, Karlsruhe Art Museum, Karlsruhe, Germany
Self-Identification, National Museum of Contemporary Art, Oslo, Norway

1996
Black and White Magic of St Petersburg, Month of European Culture in St. Petersburg, The Grand Hall of St. Petersburg Philharmonic Society, St. Petersburg

1994
City of Shadows, Gallery 21, Cultural Center Pushkinskaya 10, St. Petersburg, Russia

1993
Nomenklatura of Signs, Photopostcriptum project, State Russian Musuem, St. Petersburg, Russia

1992
Experiences photographiques russes, Month of Photography in Paris, Grand Ecran, Paris, France
Nomenklatura of Signs (audiovisual projection), Centre National de Photographie, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France

1990
Photostroyka: New Soviet Photography, Burden Gallery, Aperture Foundation, New York (followed by a three‐year U.S. tour)

1989
Nomenklatura of Signs, Ligovka-199 Exhibition Hall, Leningrad, USSR
Visages de Leningrad, Drouart Gallery, Paris, France

1983, 1986, 1988
Solo exhibitions, Nevskiy Prospekt 90, Leningrad, USSR

1979
Annual review exhibitions of Zerkalo Photographic Club, Kirov Palace of Culture, Leningrad, USSR

1978
Zerkalo Photographic Club Second Exhibition, Kirov Palace of Culture, Leningrad, USSR
Leningrad from another side, Zerkalo Photographic Club, Kirov Palace of Culture, Leningrad, USSR